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70 Egelman, Carl Friederich. Preterite-present verbs are also present, but can be … Pennsylvania German Cultural Heritage Center, Kutztown University. A trammel or bar compass, used to create the geometric layout of a barn star; a pair of patterns used to create the cross motifs between star points on Berks County barn stars; a square for creating right angles in the geometric layout of a star; the compass dividers used by the prolific barn star artist Milton J. Hill (1887-1972) of Virginville, Berks County. The blessing reads in translation: “In God’s name, I go out. Johnny Claypoole often repainted historic barns using the ghosts as a template for his restorations. Figure 45: Artist Johnny Claypoole (1921-2004) of Lenhartsville, who learned his technique from the legendary “Professor of Hexology” Johnny Ott (1890-1964), owner of the Lenhartsville Hotel and the progenitor of the commercial hex sign art of the 1950s and 60s. Lancaster PA: Pennsylvania Dutch Folklore Center, Inc., Franklin and Marshall College. See Moyer 2003 for an alternate translation. A metalworker answered the call who had recently moved to Lenhartsville from Philadelphia with his family. In the absence of any widely disseminated information on the subject, authors and entrepreneurs hurried to fill the void with travel journalism that was often fraught with rampant misconceptions, commercialism, and dubious interpretations of the culture. 2002. “In Search of America’s Oldest Hex Signs,” Der Reggeboge 36(1):21–27; Fooks, David. And yet how unconcern’d we go, Figure 31: “The heavens declare the glory of God and the firmament sheweth his handywork.”—an engraving by Carl Friederick Egelman (1782-1860) of Mount Penn, Berks County, and the frontispiece of The Complete Explanation of the Calendar, with a Comprehensive Instruction of the Heavenly Bodies, by the Rev. Mechanicsburg, Pa: Stackpole Books. Erlenbach-Zürich: Eugen Rentsch Verlag. Figure 11: A four-pointed star from the Berks-Lehigh border with symmetrical arrangements of raindrops, suggesting the opening of a flower. < https://libwww.freelibrary.org/blog/post/1789>. 1905. Clockwise from top left: A door panel carved with six-pointed rosettes, Keiserslautern; rosettes and a cross on the ventilators of the fifteenth-century St. Martin’s Catholic Church, Ober-Olm; 1891 house blessing inscription for Jos[eph] and Katherina (Theobald) Bootz, Oberalben; a rosette on the eave of a half-timbered home in Romersheim; an arched farmyard gate, featuring a sunrise, Oberalben; a whirling swastika on a home in Romersheim; a house blessing inscription for Karl and Katherina (Gilcher) Helm, 1883, Oberalben. The Claypoole legacy has been a tremendous force for the present day preservation and revival of the barn star tradition. His geometric composition was intricate and meticulous, and he combined high-contrast colors in the star points with subtle variations in the border. Whether repainting an historic ghost, or starting from scratch on new barn siding, Eric begins by prepping the surface to remove any damaged paint or debris from the wood. 1999. Figure 29: Chip-Carved Mattress Paddle, Nineteenth Century. Nevertheless, visitors to Lancaster County today will likely see commercial hex sign plaques for sale at tourist gift shops and applied to storefronts, restaurants, travel agencies, and commercial attractions all along the Route 30 corridor, marketed as original features of the “Amish Country.”, Interestingly enough, it was the influence of Johnny Ott of Lenhartsville, Berks County, who introduced the hex sign to Lancaster through a partnership with Lancaster silk-screen printer Jacob Zook, who became the understudy of Ott in the 1950s.97 Zook produced novelty items starting in the late 1940s, but created a veritable hex sign empire by mass-producing simplified versions of Johnny Ott’s work with silk screen technology. The seven days of the week are not only a measurement of time specific to biblical literature, but are also connected with the seven visible planets of the ancients, who named the days of the week after these celestial bodies. Excludes delivery, installation, liquor, gift cards and prior purchases. 2. Figure 24: Bookplate and Birth Record for Marya Wenger, FFLP B-125, Rare Book Department, Free Library of Philadelphia. 99 These meanings are widely available in the form of advertising sheets, which show little hex signs the size of postage stamps, each with a succinct meaning. Leaves but the number less. However, there is a kernel of truth to Nutting’s account that occasionally farmers would carve or draw a “hexefuss” in chalk on a door. 16 Whittemore, Carroll E. 1959. 57 See “Blumme & Schtanne” in Donmoyer 2013. Again, the earliest Protestant gravestones deliberately avoided the use of the cross,39 and instead a diverse range of images appeared to serve as reflections of mortality and rebirth. The hymn is “Triumph over Death in Hope of Resurrection,” from Isaac Watts’ 1707 Hymns and Spiritual Songs. Today Eric Claypoole has continued his father’s legacy, and has become the most prolific painter in the Dutch Country. On the most basic level, many associated meanings are based upon the number of star points or other visual elements. He is shown here with a sun-and-rain sign, supposed to bring crop fertility.” This staged shot depicts Ott working in his studio in his classic tophat, which he later abandoned in the 1960s to don a flat black hat like that of the Amish of Lancaster County. Courtesy of Patrick J. Donmoyer. Courtesy of Patrick J. Donmoyer. No longer visible are three sets of arches over the windows, with three crosses within the arches. While the value of a survey is to create a snapshot in time, this survey has become a living record, including both the occasional loss of a historic barn, as well as the documentation of a living tradition that continues to shape the landscape in new and exciting ways. Sutherlands has a huge selection of paint accessories and painting tools. Protestant communities in early Pennsylvania deliberately avoided the continuation of Roman Catholic symbolic emblems, and only later accepted these ideas when Protestant churches in America intentionally reintegrated such liturgical elements during the Victorian gothic revival. 2000 Registered Bay Mare, 14.3hh CABOT FRENCH PEPPER x NEMOURS MARCHIONESS Pedigree Fostered in NH Rescued July 2020 Adoption Fee: $700. Among the first of these photographers to document the decorated barns of Southeastern and Central Pennsylvania was William E. Ferrell (1870-1949) of Bethlehem, President of the Easton Car and Construction Company, whose travels brought him into contact with over 700 decorated barns in the 1920s through the 40s, as indicated in a presentation given to the Pennsylvania German Folklore Society Annual Meeting, at the Bucks County Historical Society, in May of 1940. Have you tried the new, trendy chalk paint? Thus Claypoole was able to participate in the artistic dialog of his era without compromising what he knew to be true about the origins of the tradition. A printed copy of Hex Signs: Sacred and Celestial Symbolism in Pennsylvania Dutch Barn Stars will be available for purchase for $10. The painters were compensated only $7.03 for the painting of the stars, which amounts to an adjusted $182.43 in today’s currency. Pennsylvania German Cultural Heritage Center, Kutztown University. Allentown, Pa: Schlechter; and Stoudt 1948. While Hill maintained that his work was an extension of an old tradition of painting stars on barns, Johnny Ott assumed the title of “Professor of Hexology,” and explained that his work was imbued with magical power. Although I had expected to document an artistic tradition in decline—and that was precisely what I found in some areas—I was surprised and delighted to find that the sheer number of decorated barns in Berks alone had outstripped previous estimates for the whole region.4 I documented over 400 decorated barns in 2008 with the majority in Northern Berks, and have added scores from neighboring counties ever since, tallying over 500 for the total region. With elaborate examples located in Berks, Lehigh, Montgomery, and Northampton counties, some of the most notable of these star medallions occur on English Georgian farmhouses on the upper gable apex. These payments equal the total promo purchase amount divided by the number of months in the promo period and rounded up to the next whole dollar. Copyright © 2009-document.write(new Date().getFullYear()), "Hex Signs: Sacred and Celestial Symbolism in Pennsylvania Dutch Barn Stars", The Pennsylvania German Cultural Heritage Center, https://digitalcommons.ursinus.edu/pafolklifemag/9, https://libwww.freelibrary.org/blog/post/1789>, ← Seven Sleepers and Seven Kneelers: Three Thirteenth-Century Stained-Glass Panels from Rouen, A Medievalist in the Archives: Exploring Twentieth-Century Medievalism at Glencairn →, Private Access | “Sacred Adornment” Exhibition and Great Hall, “Sacred Adornment: Jewelry as Belief in Ancient Egypt”. Certain forms of raking light, common in the early morning and late afternoon, would cause these star patterns to emerge visibly from the siding, and disappear from sight when the sun’s angle changed—giving rise to the idea of a “ghost.”. His specialty was the image of the winged Sophia, a symbolic representation of the spirit of wisdom favored by some Pietist groups in Pennsylvania, especially the community at the Ephrata Cloister. However, one need only look to the churchyards and cemeteries to see that such imagery extended beyond the realm of the trades and featured prominently in the symbolism of early gravestones, which were equally an expression of sacred, consecrated space. Just as humans throughout the ages have projected countless interpretations upon the orderly movements of the celestial sphere, so too have the artistic renderings of these celestial bodies on Pennsylvania barns been the subject of a wide variety of interpretations, theories, and organizing principles. 1953. “Folk Festival Dinkelfoodles.” Pennsylvania Dutchman, V(4):16. Donmoyer is the author of the exhibition catalogue and also of the 2013 book, Hex Signs: Myth and Meaning in Pennsylvania Dutch Barn Stars. Nevertheless, by 1953, when Milton first appeared at the Festival as a demonstrator,81 he had already embraced the idea of painting his stars on Masonite, a new commercial composite signboard. Barn stars weather in the elements, and the interaction between the rays of the sun and the surface of the wood produces a pronounced relief over the course of many years. Although smaller and more subtle than the large barn stars of Pennsylvania, these carved, painted, or inscribed stars are often found in significant locations, above doors and windows in centuries-old town houses, carved into arches and fenestration of city gates and churches, inscribed into the eaves or upper gables of timber-frame buildings, or integrated into elaborate house blessings. Eric had begun as all of his siblings did, helping his father as a boy, when he would cut and prime his father’s disks, as well as sand and prep his father’s milk cans. But floral patterns as a whole have a wide range of possible interpretations, including the frailty of mortal life as described in the Psalms, “As for man, his days are like grass; he flourishes like a flower of the field;”43 or represent Christ, the Messiah as described by the Prophet Hosea, “he shall blossom like the lily,” or as the Bridegroom in the Song of Solomon: “I am a rose of Sharon, a lily of the valleys.”44. 1940. Although it is uncertain how many barns Milton Hill painted over the course of his long career, his work and legacy provided a continued folk-cultural narrative consistent with the experience of earlier generations. Barn star artists, like Johnny Claypoole (1921-2004) and his son Eric use this weathering process as a guide for restoration of the old stars. II: Special Festival Issue, Summer 1960. https://digitalcommons.ursinus.edu/pafolklifemag/9. Pennsylvania Germans An Interpretive Encyclopedia. See also “Festival to Sponsor Tours through the Dutch Country” in the same issue of the Dutchman. According to Christian tradition, the keystone itself represents Christ, as the Book of Isaiah pronounces: “Behold, I place a stone in Zion.”32 Psalm 118 describes “the stone the builders rejected is become the chief corner stone,” interpreted by Christians as prophecy of the coming of Christ as the foundation of the church.33, The rosette takes this significance a step further, evoking the star that signified the birth of Christ in Bethlehem to the Magi,34 and again in the Book of Revelation: “I, Jesus, have sent my angel to give you this testimony for the churches: I am the Root and the Offspring of David, and the bright Morning Star.”35. And if our souls are hurried hence, In fact, the reason that barn stars are largely absent from Lancaster County is because the Amish do not decorate their barns as part of their religious commitment to plain living. Almanac traditions were followed to different degrees by different families in a way that was by no means uniform. For these early American congregations, many of whom sought to distance themselves from the cathedrals of the Roman Catholic establishment in Old Europe, the cross was thought to represent one’s internal faith journey, but was intentionally avoided as an emblem of the faith.29 Instead, a number of early Pennsylvania churches featured six-pointed rosette stars on the structures in strikingly prominent locations. 1880. Many myths about decorated barns originated during this time, and have been perpetuated into the present day. COLOR INSPIRATION FOR YOUR HOME: Sutherlands has a variety of interior and exterior paints and stains. 23 Ensminger 2003, uses the English term Folkhouse not used in Europe; European studies include the classic text, Weiss, Richard. . Around one percent were Roman Catholics.7, What originally unified them, in all their diverse creeds and places of origin, was the German language, spoken in a wide variety of distinctive dialects at the time of immigration. Many of these designs are celestial, depicting sunbursts and geometric stars of varying numbers of points. Spiez: Verlag G. Maurer AG. Folkhouses are massive alpine farm dwellings combining the house, barn, stables, and grain storage under one roof for convenience during the harsh winter weather. They are supposed to be a continuance of a very ancient tradition, according to which these decorative marks were potent to protect the barn, or more particularly the cattle, from the influence of witches. A six-pointed star with a central pinwheel painted in the alternating colors of yellow and green, framed within a border of three concentric circles, bears a striking resemblance to the classic barn stars painted with eight, twelve, and six points throughout the region. A nineteenth-century wooden canteen inscribed with six-pointed rosettes carved from a single block of wood, with pairs of stars on either end. 6 Yoder, Don. I Choose You!) These are combined in ways that suggest certain floral species, and were once occasionally called Lillye (lilies) or Dullebaane (tulips).12. Terms of Use | This clever connection may also shed light on two large geometric designs situated directly below the gable of the roof, which appear to blend both floral and celestial geometry, just as the two inscriptions alternately appeal to righteous living on earth and the protection of the heavens. In a classic case of mistaking the map for the territory, such motifs were promoted to tourists as having the power that had for previous generations belonged to the realm of the celestial and the divine. Eric Claypoole carries on this tradition today, painting three crosses above windows and doorways, like this example. The majority of the Pennsylvania Dutch established communities organized around Lutheran and Reformed congregations. A copy of this exhibition catalogue is also available as a pdf file. This allowed him to maintain the local aesthetics of the landscape, while exploring up-close the geometric layouts of previous generations of painters, whose works were emblazoned on the wood. Eric’s energy and innovation will undoubtedly continue to transform the landscape for decades to come, inspiring younger generations of painters to advance the artistry and agricultural heritage of the Pennsylvania Dutch. Spray paint can help make anything look new and Sutherlands carries a variety of colors. Barn decorations exist in a wide diversity of forms, drawing upon celestial imagery blended with floral geometry. Figure 18: Above (clockwise from the top left): A spread of circular house and barn blessing plaques—An 1820 barn star from Perry Township, Berks County; an elaborate star from the 1801 Isaac Bieber Homestead, near Kutztown, Maxatawny Township, Berks County; an 1805 star on a Georgian farmhouse, Oley Valley, Berks County; a six-pointed star in plaster on a mill in Northern Lehigh County; a sixteen-pointed star painted on a plaster farmhouse medallion, ca. One important element that characterizes Eric’s work is his love of learning and discovery. After first practicing on discarded hubcaps, he eventually settled on commercial signboard. For an overview of Egelman’s career and interests see Winkler, Louis. It is abundantly clear, however, that no matter how the stars have been celebrated, interpreted, commercialized, or appropriated throughout the centuries by inhabitants and visitors alike, their history is inextricably linked to the Pennsylvania barns themselves, and the Pennsylvania Dutch folk culture that built the barns, transformed the landscape, and continues to persevere in an ever-changing world. Get 5% Off single-receipt purchases of any in-stock or special order merchandise. Although the stars are not locally believed to serve a protective function, the three crosses above windows and doorways are not merely a decorative scheme, but a blessing of the structure. Lebanon, PA: Lebanon County Historical Society, 282-284; see also Fogel, Edwin Miller. London: J. Humfreys. While they are not strictly representational, these abstract designs became widely accepted as images of the stars over thousands of years of folk-cultural use across the globe. Rarely do such illustrated stones offer an inscription to elaborate upon the beliefs which undergird the images. Beginning with the founding of Germantown in 1683, and spreading throughout the region, the Pennsylvania Dutch settled much of what is today the counties of Berks, Lehigh, Schuylkill, Northampton, Northern Montgomery, Upper Bucks, Lancaster, Lebanon, and beyond. The barn standing at the location of the old Ida Bond Hotel was last painted in the 1980s by Johnny and Eric Claypoole of Lenhartsville, Berks County. Got a bigger paint job? Pennsylvania German Cultural Heritage Center, Kutztown University. 79 Zehner 1953, “The Hills from Hamburg.”. Featuring elaborate images of stars, angelic messengers, birds, and floral patterns, these illuminated certificates, or Geburts- und Taufscheine (Birth and Baptismal certificates), celebrate new life with depictions of the heavens and the natural world. Hill began painting this star pattern on barns in 1902 at the age of 14. Courtesy of Patrick J. Donmoyer. Johnny Claypoole continued to tell tall-tales about the effects of his commercial hex signs on his customers. Their distinctive agriculture, religious expression, arts and architecture, industry, and trades, have shaped and been shaped by the broader American experience as these immigrants and their descendants migrated throughout the United States and into Southern Appalachia and the Shenandoah Valley, the Midwest and the Ozarks, the West Coast, and Ontario, Canada. He was also an innovative designer whose elaborate barn stars featured intricate raindrop patterns in radial formations that have become classic in the Lehigh Valley. Methodical, process-oriented, and exacting, Eric is fascinated by geometry, and continually pushes the limitations of the tradition, by recombining celestial patterns in new and unique ways. By Johann Ritter in 1830 FFLP B-125, Rare Book Department, Free Library of Congress number star. 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